Together with human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs), human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) are the two components of the human amniotic membrane, are part of the innermost layer of the amnion and are in direct contact with the amniotic fluid of the embryo. hAECs are positive for several human pluripotent stem cell markers and possess the ability to differentiate into three embryonic layers.